ANDY WARHOL CHRONOLOGY
Andrew Warhola was born in Pittsburgh on August 6 to Julia and Andrej Warhola, Carpatho-Rusyn immigrants from the village of Mikova in present-day eastern Slovakia. He had two older brothers, Paul and John.
The family regularly attended St. John Chrysostom Byzantine Catholic Church.
After renting a succession of small apartments, the Warholas purchased a home at 3252 Dawson Street. Andy lived there until he moved to New York in 1949.
Andy projected cartoon images on the walls of his home.
Andy grew interested in photography and took pictures with the family’s Kodak Brownie camera. An area of the Warholas’ basement was cleared for use as a darkroom.
From about 1937 to 1941, he attended free Saturday art classes at the Carnegie Institute.
After contracting rheumatic fever, Andy was stricken with St. Vitus dance (Sydenham chorea) and confined to home for more than two months, during which his mother encouraged his interests in art, comics, and movies.
Andy began collecting photographs of movie stars.
Signed a portrait he painted of his friend Nick Kish with the name “A. Warhol.”
Graduated from Holmes Elementary School and entered Schenley High School, where he received the highest marks in his art classes.
Andrej Warhola died after a lengthy illness. He had saved several thousand dollars to be used for Andy’s education.
Andy Warhola was admitted to the Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University) and enrolled in the Department of Painting and Design.
In 1947–1948, he experimented with a blotted line drawing technique that became a mainstay of his 1950s commercial work.
Andy worked at a summer job in the display department at the Joseph Horne department store in downtown Pittsburgh.
Warhol’s painting I Like Dance and his print Dance in Black and White included in the annual exhibition of the Associated Artists of Pittsburgh.
Andy served as art editor for the student magazine Cano.
Warhol’s painting The Broad Gave Me My Face, But I Can Pick My Own Nose was rejected for the annual exhibition of the Associated Artists of Pittsburgh. Juror George Grosz, the German artist, was said to have praised the work. It was later included in a student exhibition at Pittsburgh’s Arts and Crafts Center.
Graduated from Carnegie Tech with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in pictorial design. His professors included Samuel Rosenberg and Robert Lepper.
Shortly after graduating, he moved to New York City.
Began to work as a commercial artist, usually under the name Andy Warhol. Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, he illustrated a great variety of published projects, and designed department store windows.
Received an Art Directors Club Medal for his newspaper illustrations that advertised the CBS radio feature “The Nation’s Nightmare.” He received numerous graphic arts awards throughout the 1950s.
Warhol’s first solo exhibition, “Fifteen Drawings Based on the Writings of Truman Capote,” was held at the Hugo Gallery, New York.
Produced the illustrated books A Is an Alphabet and Love Is a Pink Cake, “by Corkie and Andy,” with his friend Ralph T. Ward. He gave these and other books to clients and associates, and also sold them through shops.
Exhibited in both group and solo shows at the Loft Gallery, New York. Among his works were marbleized and folded or crumpled paper works displayed on the walls, floors, and ceiling.
Self-published the illustrated book 25 Cats Name Sam and One Blue Pussy, with text by Charles Lisanby. These and Warhol’s other books were hand-colored at “coloring parties” with friends and associates.
Began frequenting the café Serendipity 3 on East 58th Street, which is known for its desserts.
Used hand-carved rubber stamps to create repeated images, which were often hand-colored. He employed this technique through the early 1960s.
The shoe company I. Miller selected Warhol to illustrate its weekly newspaper advertisements, which became a great success and run for about three years.
Nathan Gluck was hired as a studio assistant.
Warhol’s “Studies for a Boy Book” exhibited at the Bodley Gallery, New York. During the 1950s, Warhol filled numerous sketchbooks with his drawings of young men.
Exhibited gold-leaf-collaged shoe drawings in his “Golden Slipper Show or Shoes Shoe in America” at the Bodley Gallery. His gold shoes were published in the January 21, 1957, issue of Life magazine.
A Warhol drawing of a shoe was included in the exhibition “Recent Drawings U.S.A.” at the Museum of Modern Art.
Became acquainted with the photographer Edward Wallowitch. Warhol used images from Wallowitch’s photographs, as well as other photographs and images, in his own works.
Took a two-month world tour focusing on Asia and Europe with his friend Charles Lisanby.
Self-published A Gold Book, with many drawings based on Wallowitch’s photos.
Andy Warhol Enterprises was legally incorporated.
Underwent cosmetic surgery on his nose.
With his friend Suzie Frankfurt, Warhol self-published Wild Raspberries, a cookbook of absurd recipes; the title is a joke referencing Ingmar Bergman’s film Wild Strawberries.
Acquired a townhouse at 1342 Lexington Avenue, which accommodated his growing collections of art, furniture, and objects. It also gave him the space to create larger artworks.
Warhol’s stage designs appear in performances of the Lukas Foss / Gian Carlo Menotti operetta Introductions and Goodbyes at The Festival of Two Worlds in Spoleto, Italy.
Painted his first works based on comics and advertisements, by using an opaque projector to enlarge the original image onto a canvas, which Warhol then traced and painted.
Showed his paintings Advertisement, Little King, Superman, Before and After, and Saturday’s Popeye with a display of dresses in a window of New York’s Bonwit Teller department store.
Published his first editioned print, Cooking Pot, a photoengraving of a detail from a newspaper advertisement.
Used rubber stamps to create S & H Green Stamps and other works, including portrait illustrations for Harper’s Bazaar.
Warhol based his Do It Yourself paintings on common paint-by-numbers images.
Made paintings of entire newspaper front pages.
After creating a few series of works using hand-drawn silkscreens, he began to use the photo-silkscreen technique.
Warhol experimented with instant photography, which became essential to his portrait process in the early-1970s.
After silk-screening portraits of the teen idols Natalie Wood, Troy Donahue, and Warren Beatty, Warhol began his photo-silkscreened Marilyn paintings after Marilyn Monroe’s death.
Started a series of paintings of suicides and car crashes.
Warhol’s hand-painted Campbell’s Soup Can paintings were shown at the Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles.
Included in the exhibition “New Painting of Common Objects,” at the Pasadena Art Museum.
Featured in a Time magazine article on Pop artists.
Hired Gerard Malanga as studio assistant.
Made multiple image silkscreened portraits of the collector Ethel Scull and others based on photographs of his subjects taken in common photo booths.
Began paintings of Elvis Presley and Elizabeth Taylor using publicity photographs as sources.
Bought a 16mm movie camera.
Made the films Sleep, Kiss, Haircut, and Tarzan and Jane Regained…Sort Of, and the first of more than 500 Screen Tests.
While in Los Angeles for the exhibition of his Elvis and Liz paintings, Warhol met Marcel Duchamp at his exhibition in Pasadena, and attended a “Movie Star Party” arranged in his honor by Dennis Hopper.
Included in the exhibition “Six Painters and the Object,” at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.
Included in the exhibition “The Popular Image” at the Washington Gallery of Modern Art, Washington, D.C. The exhibition traveled to London.
Baby Jane Holzer, Taylor Mead, and Ondine (Bob Olivo) became his associates at about this time, acting in his films. Warhol’s first Superstars, they were synonymous with his work.
Warhol rented an abandoned firehouse near his home, for use as a painting studio.
Designed costumes for a Broadway production of The Beast in Me, by James Thurber. His work wasn’t credited because he was not a union member.
Established his studio at 231 East 47th Street, soon to be known as “the Factory.” It was painted silver and covered with aluminum foil by Billy Name (Billy Linich) a theatrical lighting designer whom Warhol had met the year before.
Made the Thirteen Most Wanted Men mural for the facade of the New York Pavilion at the 1964 New York World’s Fair. Officials objected to the work, and it was painted over in silver paint.
Made Brillo Boxes and other box sculptures, which were exhibited at the Stable Gallery.
Began his series of Jackie paintings after President Kennedy’s assassination.
Began Flowers paintings, which were shown at the Castelli Gallery this year, and in Paris the next year.
His paintings of car crashes and suicides were shown at Galerie Ileana Sonnabend in Paris, and elsewhere in Europe.
Made the films Blow Job, Eat, Empire, and Harlot (his first with live sound). His film Andy Warhol films Jack Smith filming Normal Love (1963) is confiscated in a raid by the New York City Police Department, and lost.
Acquired his first tape recorder, which later became his constant companion.
Warhol’s painting Orange Disaster No. 5 included in the Pittsburgh International (now the Carnegie International) exhibition at the Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh.
A Warhol film installation with a soundtrack by LaMonte Young was exhibited at the New York Film Festival.
Received the Independent Film Award from Film Culture, the avant-garde film periodical edited by Jonas Mekas.
Made the films Poor Little Rich Girl, Vinyl, Kitchen, Lupe, Outer and Inner Space, My Hustler, and others.
Designed the cover for an issue of Time magazine.
Exhibited his video art, the first artist to do so.
While in Paris for the opening of his Flowers exhibition at the Galerie Ileana Sonnabend, Warhol described himself as a “retired artist” who planned to devote himself to film.
The opening night crowd overwhelmed the retrospective of Warhol’s work at the Institute of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia.
Met Paul Morrissey, one the most important figures for Warhol’s work in film.
Edie Sedgwick starred in about ten of Warhol’s films.
Superstars Brigid Polk (Brigid Berlin) and Ultra Violet (Isabelle Colin Dufresne) began to frequent the Factory at about this time.
Produced the Exploding Plastic Inevitable, multimedia shows featuring the Velvet Underground rock and roll band, performance, film, and light shows.
At the Castelli Gallery, Warhol exhibited his Cow wallpaper in one room, and filled a second, white-walled room with his floating Silver Clouds.
Made the films The Velvet Underground and Nico and The Chelsea Girls. The Chelsea Girls was distributed widely and received international media attention.
Published the print editions Kiss, Jacqueline Kennedy (I, II, and III), Banana, and Self-Portrait. In the following years, Warhol created over 400 print editions.
Produced the first LP album by the Velvet Underground and Nico. The cover, designed by Warhol, showed a banana with vinyl skin that could be peeled off to expose the pink fruit. A larger fine art print is also produced.
The following advertisement appeared in the February 10 issue of The Village Voice: “I’ll endorse with my name any of the following; clothing AC-DC, cigarettes small, tapes, sound equipment, ROCK N’ ROLL RECORDS, anything, film, and film equipment, Food, Helium, Whips, MONEY!! love and kisses ANDY WARHOL, EL 5-9941.”
Gave away the bride at The Mod Wedding at the Detroit, Michigan State Fair Grounds Coliseum. The event featured an Exploding Plastic Inevitable performance.
Warhol and his Superstars began to frequent the back room of the notorious bar-restaurant Max’s Kansas City on Union Square.
Invited to author Truman Capote’s “Black and White Dance,” referred to as “the party of the decade.”
Made Self-Portrait paintings, which were included in the United States Pavilion at Expo ‘67 in Montreal.
Made the films Bike Boy, I a Man, and The Nude Restaurant.
Designed the poster for the fifth New York Film Festival.
Two Warhol books were published: Andy Warhol’s Index (Book) and Screen Tests/A Diary, a collaboration between Warhol and Gerard Malanga.
The FBI reported on Warhol’s activities during location shooting in Oracle, Arizona for his film Lonesome Cowboys. On the same trip, location footage was shot in La Jolla, California for San Diego Surf.
Warhol gave a college lecture tour with Allen Midgette impersonating him for several engagements.
Joe Dallesandro, Candy Darling, and Viva became Superstars.
In January, Warhol moved his studio to a white-walled office space on the 6th floor of 33 Union Square West.
In February, Malanga was nearly imprisoned for forging Warhol paintings in Rome.
On June 3, Valerie Solanas, who appeared in Warhol’s film I, a Man and was the founder and sole member of S.C.U.M. (Society for Cutting Up Men), shot Warhol in his studio.
Produced the film Flesh, directed by Paul Morrissey, and made Blue Movie. Warhol began to take a less active role in filmmaking.
The Schrafft’s restaurant chain hired Warhol to create a television advertisement for The Underground Sundae.
a: a novel, a transcription of Warhol’s tape recordings featuring Ondine, was published by Grove Press.
The artist’s Silver Clouds were used as the set for Merce Cunningham’s dance RainForest.
A retrospective of Warhol’s work was held at the Moderna Museet, Stockholm, and traveled throughout Scandinavia.
Warhol’s work was included in “Documenta 4” in Kassel, Germany.
Jed Johnson was hired as an assistant. Soon after, he began living with Warhol and his mother.
Curated “Raid the Icebox I with Andy Warhol,” a selection from the storage rooms of the Museum of Art at the Rhode Island School of Design.
Produced the film Trash, directed by Paul Morrissey.
The first issue of Interview magazine was published.
Included in the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s “New York Painting and Sculpture: 1940–1970.”
Vincent Fremont began to work for Warhol. He became a close associate on video and television projects, and eventually became his executive manager.
Warhol’s production of commissioned portraits increased in the early 1970s. Most were based on his Polaroid photographs of sitters, including collectors, friends, and celebrities.
Created the Rain Machine, an installation that incorporated a water shower and 3-D lenticular prints of flowers, in connection with the Los Angeles County Museum of Art’s Art and Technology Program. The Rain Machine was exhibited in the United States Pavilion at Expo ‘70 in Osaka, Japan.
Acquired a portable video camera and began to work regularly with video.
A major retrospective of Warhol’s work was held at the Pasadena Art Museum. The exhibition traveled to Chicago, Eindhoven, Paris, London, and New York.
The first monograph on Warhol was published, written by art historian Rainer Crone.
Bob Colacello began to work for Interview. He eventually became the magazine’s executive editor.
With Vincent Fremont and Michael Netter, Warhol began Factory Diaries, a series of videotaped recordings of life at the studio.
Designed the album cover of the Rolling Stones’ Sticky Fingers in collaboration with Craig Braun. The cover, a male torso in jeans with a functioning zipper, was nominated for a Grammy Award.
Warhol’s play Pork, based on his tape recordings, was performed in London and New York.
Warhol and Paul Morrissey acquired a twenty-acre compound in Montauk, Long Island. Lee Radziwill and other friends spent much time there.
Began Mao paintings, drawings, and prints.
After publishing his print Vote McGovern for a presidential candidate, the Internal Revenue Service audited Warhol; he was audited annually until his death.
Produced the films Women in Revolt! and Heat, directed by Paul Morrissey.
Removed the films he had directed from circulation.
Warhol’s mother died in Pittsburgh. She had returned there from New York in 1971.
Made the videos Vivian’s Girls and Phoney, directed with Vincent Fremont.
Appeared in the film The Driver’s Seat with Elizabeth Taylor.
Ronnie Cutrone became Warhol’s studio assistant in 1973 or 1974; he had previously danced with the EPI.
Began assembling Time Capsules in standard-sized boxes. This collection of objects and ephemera from his entire life eventually numbered more than 600 boxes, and included antiques and works of art.
Co-produced the films Andy Warhol’s Dracula and Andy Warhol’s Frankenstein (in 3-D), directed by Paul Morrissey.
Maosexhibited at the Musée Galliera, Paris, hung on Warhol’s Mao wallpaper.
Moved the studio to 860 Broadway, which became known as “the office.”
Acquired a townhouse at 57 East 66th Street. Jed Johnson decorated the house, which was filled with art and collectibles.
Made Ladies and Gentlemen paintings, drawings, and prints, depicting transvestites.
Made the video Fight, co-directed with Vincent Fremont.
THE Philosophy of Andy Warhol (From A to B and Back Again)was published by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Produced the musical Man on the Moon, with book, music, and lyrics by John Phillips, directed by Paul Morrissey.
Made Skull paintings, drawings, and prints and began Hammer and Sickles.
Produced the film Bad, directed by Jed Johnson.
Began dictating his diary to Pat Hackett. It was published posthumously and became a bestseller.
A retrospective of Warhol’s drawings was held at the Württembergischer Kunstverein, Stuttgart.
Made Torso paintings and drawings.
“Andy Warhol’s ‘Folk and Funk,’” an exhibition of Warhol’s folk art collection, was held at the Museum of American Folk Art, New York.
Began to frequent the nightclub Studio 54 with friends Halston, Bianca Jagger, and Liza Minnelli.
Made Self-Portraits with skulls, Shadows, and Oxidation paintings.
A retrospective of Warhol’s work held at the Kunsthaus, Zurich.
Began to produce the ten-episode video program Fashion, directed by Don Munroe.
Andy Warhol’s Exposures, with photographs by Warhol and text co-written with Bob Colacello, published by Andy Warhol Books/Grosset and Dunlap.
At the request of BMW, Warhol handpaints an M1 racing car for the 24-hour Le Mans race.
Warhol’s Shadows paintings were exhibited at the Heiner Friedrich Gallery, New York.
“Andy Warhol: Portraits of the 70s” was presented at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York.
Developed Andy Warhol’s T.V., directed by Don Munroe.
POPism: The Warhol ‘60s, by Warhol and Pat Hackett, published by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Warhol’s photographs exhibited at the Museum Ludwig, Cologne, and the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam.
A life mask of Warhol is made for a robot that is intended for an unrealized theater project, conceived by Peter Sellars and Lewis Allen.
Jay Shriver became Warhol’s studio assistant.
In Vatican City, Warhol and Fred Hughes briefly met Pope John Paul II.
Made Dollar Signs, Knives, Crosses, and Guns works.
Produced and starred in three one-minute episodes of Andy Warhol’s T.V., directed by Don Munroe for the television program “Saturday Night Live.”
Began to be represented by the Zoli modeling agency.
The Castelli Gallery exhibited Warhol’s Dollar Sign paintings.
An exhibition of works by Joseph Beuys, Robert Rauschenberg, Cy Twombly, and Warhol shown at the Nationalgalerie, Berlin.
Warhol’s Zeitgeist paintings shown in the group exhibition “Zeitgeist” at the Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin.
Traveled to Hong Kong and Beijing with Fred Hughes and photographer Christopher Makos.
Warhol, Jean-Michel Basquiat, and Francesco Clemente began collaborating on paintings. Warhol and Basquiat became close friends and worked together into 1985.
During this period, Warhol began a series of works, many of them hand-painted, based on advertisements, commercial imagery, and illustrations.
Designed the official poster for the Brooklyn Bridge Centennial.
Appeared in a Japanese television commercial for TDK.
Paintings for Childrenexhibition at Bruno Bischofberger Gallery, Zurich. Small paintings of toys were hung at child’s eyelevel, on Fish Wallpaper.
Made Rorschach paintings.
Made a music video for The Cars’ “Hello Again,” with Don Munroe. The video also featured Warhol.
“Collaborations: Jean-Michel Basquiat, Francesco Clemente, Andy Warhol” exhibited at the Bruno Bischofberger Gallery, Zurich.
Moved his studio and Interview magazine to a former Consolidated Edison building at 22 East 33rd Street.
Made Absolut Vodka paintings, which were used in “Absolut Warhol” advertisements, the first in the series created by artists.
Exhibited his Invisible Sculpture, consisting of a pedestal, a wall label, and Warhol himself in a showcase, at the nightclub Area. An earlier version consisted of motion detectors that set off a cacophony of alarms.
Andy Warhol’s Fifteen Minutes, directed by Don Munroe, aired on MTV from 1985 to 1987.
America, with photographs and text by Warhol, was published by Harper and Row.
Appeared as a guest star in the 200th episode of the television program “The Love Boat,” and in a television commercial for Diet Coke.
Made Last Supper and Camouflage paintings.
Made Self-Portrait paintings, which were exhibited at the Anthony d’Offay Gallery, London.
Oxidationpaintings shown at Gagosian Gallery, New York.
Optioned film and television rights to Tama Janowitz’s book Slaves of New York.
Sewn Photographsshown at Robert Miller Gallery, New York.
Last Supperpaintings exhibited at the Palazzo delle Stelline, Milan.
After suffering acute pain for several days, Warhol was admitted to New York Hospital for gallbladder surgery. The operation was successful, but complications during recovery caused his death on February 22. He was buried near his parents in a suburban Pittsburgh cemetery.